XTi PAWS is at the heart of all our technologies

Over 12 years of research has shown that the Pulsed Alternating Wavelengths System (PAWS) is the most effective way of delivering light to chromophores.  Chromophores are molecules that receive photons and give off electrons in biology. 

There are thousands of different chromophores and most of them are bi-phasic. This means that they are reactive to more than one color and exist in two distinct states. One state is when they are armed with an electron to give off and one is when they are disarmed or devoid of electrons to give. 

We use the original pulse of light in PAWS to get the chromophore to give off its electron to the underlying biology. Then, where typically there is a slow multi step redox reaction to get the chromophore to re-arm itself, we use a second and different wavelength of light to instantaneously re-arm the chromophore with a new electron. 

This shortens the refractory period of the chromophore and allows more light initiated information to be driven to the organism. 

Because the reactions of the organism are photo-chemical reactions that happen in the order of femtoseconds, it is not necessary to deliver light to plants or animals with on off cycles that mimic the sun. Instead, these signals are given as a function of ratios of near-red, far-red and blue wavelengths hundreds of thousands of times per second. This is what drives day length and seasonality information to the organism.

Evolution has programmed organisms to receive light signalling from the sun


Sunlight creates natural circadian function, optmizing a human's hormone production for sleep and wake cycles. For centuries, humans used the sun as the mechanism for controlling sleep wake cycles. 

But as the industrial revolution called thousands of people back from a natural circadian existence where they began working inside, human's connection to a natural circadian rhythm began to falter. Humans, long goverened by the sun, now segmented their days into three distict eight hour periods 
8 hours work
8 hours family social
8 hours sleep 


And now, in just a over a century, humans have begun to unravel a millenia of bilogical evolution. Humans on average:
Spend 92% of their lives indoors 
Spend 7-9 hours per day on screens 
Are SUFFERING Circadian Disruption, a breakage of the natural sleep wake cycles.

Why Lighting Matters:

XTi has been working to improve agricultural welfare and production for over a decade.  XTi's technology applies to almost all living organisms.  As an example, the video below shows how identical chicken egg production houses are impacted by XTi lighting. 

In the XTi lit barn, chickens are calmer and happier.  They grow additional lean muscle mass and skeletal structure and have a significant reduction in agitation and anxiety.  

Commercial Poultry Layers -
Industry Standard Lighting

Commercial Poultry Layers -
XTi Lighting

The Videos above are filmed using the same camera with the same audio settings on two barns that are side by side.  XTI Ag lighting allows producers to provide more light to the birds without increasing stress and cannibalism.  

Commercial Poultry Layers -
XTi Lighting Recipe 1

Commercial Poultry Layers -
XTi Lighting Recipe 2

By simply changing how light is pulsed (i.e. the recipe), The fear response in the birds are replaced with calmness and curriosity.  XTI Ag lighting allows producers to reduce stress on the birds.  Less stressed birds live longer and produce better eggs.

Science behind XTI Lighting in Animals

  • Sensory stimulation of the brain is an emerging field which is developing rapidly. 
  • Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to play a critical role in the brain’s perception of light.
  • ipRGCs are specialized cells in the retina that perceive light and intensity. They differ from the rods and cones that are involved in typical vison.
  • ipRGCs also receive synaptic input from rod and cone photoreceptors.
  • ipRGCs receive and transmit light information to several regions of the brain. This results in conscious visual perception as well as subconscious effects on daily activity, sleep, and hormone production.
  • Many of these ipRGCs release excitatory neurotransmitters but a subset of these cells release inhibitory neurotransmitters, specifically gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
  • ipRGCs utilize melanopsin as their photopigment instead of rhodopsin that is found in other types of retinal cells.
  • Melanopsin has been shown to be maximally sensitive to blue light (470-480nm).
  • A study by Slominski et al, showed that UV radiation to the skin has also been shown to upregulate local neuroendocrine axes, 
  1. UVB markedly more efficient than UVA.o Locally induced cytokines, CRH, urocortins, proopiomelanocortin-peptides, enkephalines, etc are released into the circulation and can exert systemic effects.
  2. UVB stimulation of the eyes activated the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei causing direct stimulatory effects on the brain There are multiple ways that environmental sensory stimuli can directly impact brain function:
There are multiple ways that environmental sensory stimuli can directly impact brain function:
  • 1. Color of light exposure:

    a. Studies have shown that blue light during the day can improve focus and relaxation while reducing heart rate, while blue light at night can suppress melatonin production and worsen sleep
  • b. Blue light can modulate alertness and impact the endocrine system, including reduction of cortisol levels in women
  • c. In blind patients who lack rod and cone photoreceptors but retain ipRGCs, blue light increases activation in areas of the prefrontal cortex
  • d. In 2009, blue lights were installed on railway platforms in Tokyo and suicides fell by 74%
  • e. 2014 study by Chellapa et al, showed that the color of previous light exposure resulted in different areas of the brain being recruited when asked to perform a cognitive task under a test light. This was described as “photic memory”
  • f. 2017 study by Minguillon et al, showed blue light relaxes subjects 3x as fast as white light: 
    i. Subjects were stressed with a standardized model (MIST) and exposed to 471nm blue LED light vs white light during recovery 
    ii. Subjects subjectively reported the blue light to be more relaxing 
    iii. Relative Gamma power (RG) is a ratio between different types of brain waves – this showed 3x relaxation time under blue light
  • g. The effect of blue light on melatonin production is a good example:
  • ipRGCs show maximal stimulation at 470-480nm blue light.
  • Studies have shown that prestimulation of ipRGCs with light >560nm, peak at 620nm, elicit maximal response to 480nm blue light.
  • 2. Intensity of light exposure:

    a. 2022 study by Sabbah et al, looked at light intensity on brain activation
    i. Some animals have a neural pathway linking intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC).
    ii. In mice, ipRGCs innervate the perihabenular nucleus (PHb) of the thalamus. The PHb then projects to the PFC. The prefrontal cortex has well documented roles in mood regulation. This is known as the retino-thalamic-prefrontal cortex pathway.
    1. Continuous activation of the pathway induced depression-like behavior while suppression of the pathway protected against the negative effects of unnatural day-night cycles.
    2. The PHb also projects to the nucleus accumens (NAc), which modulates hedonistic behavior, and the dorsomedial striatum, which directs goal-directed actions.
    iiii. Researchers were looking to see if humans had a similar retino-thalamic-PFC pathway iv. Functional MRI was used to identify brain regions that showed light intensity dependent activation (luxotonic regions) v. 20 adults viewed full-field diffused white light stimuli between 400-700nm. Every 30 seconds the light intensity was increased in 4 separate steps covering 4 orders of magnitude. All 4 intensities were tested 3 times in a 6-min run and each session included 5 runs
    iv. Functional MRI was used to identify brain regions that showed light intensity dependent activation (luxotonic regions) 
    v. 20 adults viewed full-field diffused white light stimuli between 400-700nm. Every 30 seconds the light intensity was increased in 4 separate steps covering 4 orders of magnitude. All 4 intensities were tested 3 times in a 6-min run and each session included 5 runs 
    vi. Patients completed an auditory task during the test to ensure alertness
    vii. Luxotonic activation was seen in the PFC, precentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, frontal operculum, intraparietal sulcus, lateral geniculate nucleus, fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, pineal body, and portions of the cerebellum.
    viii. These regions collectively contribute to motor control, cognition, emotion, and reward. This is all in addition to well known vision pathways
    ix. 4 regions of the prefrontal cortex had a sustained response to light: right superior frontal gyrus (control of impulsive responses and action inhibition), left superior frontal gyrus (self-awareness and spatial working memory), anterior cingulate cortex (social cognition, attention allocation, motivation, decision making, learning, cost-benefit calculation, impulse control, and emotion), and the orbitofrontal cortex (learning, associations between taste, smell, somatosensory, and visual information; also associated with control of reward-related and punishment-related behavior)
    x. Activation of all PFC regions decreased with increasing light intensity
    xi. Resting metabolic rates in the vmPFC are higher in depressed people
    xii. Resting metabolic rates in the dlPFC are lower in depressed people
    xiii. Antidepressants and recovery from depression is associated with an opposite response, lower metabolic rates in the vmPFC and higher metabolic rates in the dlPFC
    xiv. Light showed a similar response to antidepressants in this study
    xv. Pineal gland suppression with increased light intensity is consistent with known suppression of melatonin production with increased light. This occurs via the pathway starting with ipRGCs as mentioned above. A similar response is seen in the PFC and is an indicator of ipRGCs contribution to the observed suppression of PFC activation by light
    xvi. 16 regions of the brain showed transient responses to light intensity. These areas are involved with planning, regulation, and performing voluntary movements; areas critical for visual categorization and high-level visual processing including information related to faces and bodies; visual and semantic memory and word processing; guiding and controlling spatial action; object manipulation and grasping movements; attention processes, and eye movement control
    xvii. In summary:
    1. 10 brain regions showed a steady-state activation pattern related to light intensity, most in the PFC or the classic thalamocortical visual pathway. Others were found in the cerebellum and around the pineal body
    2. The PFC regions and the pineal body showed marked suppression by bright sustained light while other regions showed activation
    3. 16 regions exhibited transient responses to changes in light intensity; these areas are related to visual perception, motor control, and cognition
    4. Results also demonstrated a strong effect of light history on PFC activation (ipRGCs have shown persistent responses following light offset)
  • 3. Frequency of light exposure:

    a. 2021 study by Shan et al, looked at the effect of pulsed LED lighting on brain wave activity.
    i. There are 5 main brain waves: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Theta, and Delta
    ii. Alpha waves(8-12Hz) = present during awake, calm quiet thought, meditative states; resting state for the brain
    iii. Beta waves(12-38Hz) = normal waking state of consciousness; dominates when we are alert, attentive, and engaged in problem-solving, decision-making, and focused mental activity
    iv. Gamma waves(30-100Hz) = associated with peak concentration and high levels of cognitive function; high gamma activity has been correlated with high IQ, excellent memory, and happiness
    v. Theta wave(4-8Hz) = involved in day-dreaming and sleep; appears during meditative, drowsy, or sleeping states; excess theta during wakefulness can result in feeling scattered; commonly reported in ADHD
    vi. Delta waves(1-4Hz) = appear in stage 3 of sleep and dominate in stage 4; considered essential for restorative sleep; healing and regeneration are stimulated; excess delta waves during wakefulness can result in learning disabilities and ADHD
    vii. ADHD, schizophrenia, and OCD all see increases in delta and theta waves as well as decreases in alpha, beta, and gamma waves. Decrease in alpha waves is also seen in depression
      viii. Induced alpha oscillations can be helpful for pain relief
      ix. Photic stimulation with a frequency at or near the native frequency of the posterior dominant rhythm may increase the amplitude of this rhythm
      x. Red stroboscopic light can rapidly and powerfully increase the amplitude of the alpha rhythm in the occipital cortex
      xi. Visual stimulation has been shown to be effective for brain wave entrainment
      xii. Prior studies have shown that continuous wave light does not influence axonal growth but pulsed light can modify axonal growth trajectory
      xiii. 6 LEDs were arranged in a triangle and shined onto the palm of the subjects
      xiv. LEDs were 850nm, 30mW, 10Hz, 50% duty cycle. Energy density was 32J/cm2 for 10 minutes
      xv. EEG was used, readings were taken prior to light stimulation, at onset and end of stimulation, at completion and 15” after completion of stimulation
      xvi. LED stimulation showed a significant increase in alpha activity in the occipital, parietal, and temporal regions; showed an increase in theta wave activity in the right temporal region
      xvii. Effects persisted for at least 15”
      xviii. No changes in beta waves were seen xix. Previous study using low-level laser light showed increased brain wave activity with the increase light intensity given by the LED lights
      xx. Pulsed LED lighting can induce specific brain waves in individuals
      xxi. “Thus, LED stimulation with the appropriate LED power and operating frequency may enable a person to relax or fall asleep easily”
        • b. 2018 study by Laccarino et al, looked at effects of brain wave stimulation in mice
          i. In an Alzheimer’s mice model, stimulation of gamma brain waves reduces Alzheimer’s related proteins and slows neurodegenerative processes
          ii. Gamma waves (30-100Hz) are associated with higher-order cognitive functions
          iii. Gamma waves are known to naturally decrease in human Alzheimer patients
          iv. In the mouse model, pulsed LED lighting stimulated gamma waves, which reduced levels of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain and boosted clearance of harmful debris by microglia cells
          v. After trying multiple frequencies, researchers found that 1hr of “light” at 40Hz increased gamma waves and reduced beta-amyloid levels by half in the visual cortex
          vi. Mice with an even higher level of amyloid buildup was given 1hr of pulsed lighting daily for 7 days and the number of amyloid plaques decreased. They also noted improved efficiency of microglia
              • c. 2019 studies by Adaikkan et al and Martorell et al looked further at this topic
                i. Auditory “clicks” played at 40Hz for 1hr/day for 1 week reduced level of beta-amyloid in the auditory cortex and hippocampus (responsible for learning and memory)
                ii. The mice performed better on memory tasks
                iii. Improved activation was seen in microglia and astrocytes (cells involved in clearing debris)
                iv. Researchers then combined light and sound stimulation
                v. This expanded the area of the brain affected beyond the visual and auditory cortex to the PFC 1. They found a clustering effect of microglia around amyloid deposits 2. Effects diminished after ~1 week
                vi. In a study looking at longer term treatment, Alzheimer’s model mice were given 6 weeks of visual gamma entrainment
                vii. Results showed increased gamma brain waves in the visual cortex and higher-order brain areas, including the hippocampus and PFC
                viii. Continued stimulation preserved neuronal and synaptic density, improved performance on memory tasks, and reduced inflammation = overall neuroprotective effect
                      • So…How does XTI Lighting Work?

                        1. XTI PAWS (Pulsed Alternating Wavelength System) Technology works by targeting specific wavelengths
                        a. Our proprietary light “recipes” take advantage of specialized neurons in the retina that has direct connections to the brain. These neurons send messages to the various parts of the brain that control sleep and melatonin production, mood, concentration, and alertness.
                        b. By changing the “recipe”, we can maximize the results of the intended activity. This includes better sleep, improved gym performance, and increased productivity, increased hair growth, reduced stress, and increased livability.
                                • 2. XTI PAWS Technology works by targeting specific light intensities
                                  a. Our advanced lighting product allows the user to change the intensity of the light “recipe” which can maximize activity in certain areas of the brain.
                                  b. Being able to control both the wavelength and the intensity offers significant benefits and a level of control that is unique
                                            • 3. XTI PAWS Technology works by changing lighting frequencies
                                              a. Brain entrainment via visual stimulation has been shown to increase certain types of brainwaves that are dominant during intense concentration and cognition, as well as during relaxation and sleep
                                              b. XTI offers different recipe frequencies that maximize brain entrainment to improve concentration, physical performance, relaxation, and sleep
                                                          • XTI’s ability to control light wavelength, light intensity, and light frequency via our patented Pulsed Alternating Wavelength System allows multiple ways to positively influence the brain in order to maximize human potential. We are able to influence sleep, stress, anxiety, concentration, cognition, mood, athletic performance, inflammation, and overall well-being with visible light alone.
                                                          • References

                                                          Takuma Sonoda et al., A noncanonical inhibitory circuit dampens behavioral sensitivity to light. Science368, 527-531(2020).DOI:10.1126/science.aay3152 

                                                          Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa, Julien Q. M. Ly, Christelle Meyer, Evelyne Balteau, Christian Degueldre, André Luxen, Christophe Phillips, Howard M. Cooper, and Gilles Vandewalle. Photic memory for executive brain responses. PNAS, March 10, 2014 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1320005111 

                                                          Slominski AT, Zmijewski MA, Plonka PM, Szaflarski JP, Paus R. How UV Light Touches the Brain and Endocrine System Through Skin, and Why. Endocrinology. 2018 May 1;159(5):1992-2007. doi: 10.1210/en.2017-03230. PMID: 29546369; PMCID: PMC5905393. 

                                                          Sabbah S, Worden MS, Laniado DD, Sanes JN. Luxotonic signals in human prefrontal cortex as a possible substrate for effects of light on mood and cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2022 July 6;119(28)e2118192119